There may be terms not in this Standard that appear in other sources. See Randomly acquired characteristic. Any material coated with a tacky substance for the purpose of lifting footwear or fingerprint impressions. A globule of air trapped within a solid material such as a footwear sole. The proportion of the tire’s height to its width. A tire tread pattern where when a tread design is divided circumferentially, one half of the tread design is not a mirror image of the other half. A hoop of steel wires that hold the tire on the rim. A tire that has plies which cross over one another at an angle. A bias tire with added reinforced belts that lie beneath the tread. A commercial product comprised of collapsible foam used primarily for the recording of anatomical impressions of a foot, and sometimes impressions of footwear soles.
Albert S. Osborn
In Depth Tutorials and Information Ink Analysis Introduction Chemical and physical analysis of inks on questioned documents provides valuable information regarding their authenticity. Comparison of these chemical and physical properties of two or more inks can determine: When dating tags are detected, it is possible to determine the actual year or years when the ink was manufactured.
Dating tags are unique chemicals that have been added to ball-point inks by some ink companies as a way to determine the year the ink was made.
The Vinland map is claimed to be a 15th-century mappa mundi with unique information about Norse exploration of North is very well known because of the publicity campaign which accompanied its revelation to the public as a “genuine” pre-Columbian map in
Born in on a farm near Grass Lake, Michigan, Mr. Osborn was the second of six children. In Grass Lake, he did the usual farm labor and attended the nearby country school. Farm life didn’t appeal to him so he attended the State College at Lansing where he became interested in the art of penmanship. With sufficient training and practice, he felt he could become a teacher of penmanship.
In the summer of , he received a letter from the Rochester Business Institute, offering him a position as a teacher of penmanship. It was from this early beginning as a teacher of handwriting that Mr. Osborn extended his interests to the identification of handwriting, typewriting, paper, ink, and to the many questions that arise concerning contested documents. In those early days, attorneys often consulted a local penmanship teacher to obtain opinions as to the genuineness or spuriousness of a signature.
As soon as Mr. Osborn became established as a highly qualified teacher, lawyers began submitting questioned document problems to him. By , his business had grown to such proportions that he moved from Rochester to New York City where he opened an office and began devoting his entire time to questioned document work. Great institutions as well as significant advances in science are almost invariably the lengthened shadow of one individual.
Lawyers should be interested in the forensic examination of disputed records for three reasons: Due diligence in court. Many attorneys are aware that forensic document examiners can determine the authenticity of a signature and perform various examinations on typewriters and printed documents.
Steve Dubedat Document Services Pty Ltd is located in Chatswood, Sydney and provides an independent, objective and comprehensive forensic document service at competitive rates. Forensic document examination has been instrumental in resolving disputes in both civil and criminal litigation, and other investigations.
Undertaken with a view to establishing a fully, internationally accepted, well proven and correctly underpinned certification of a work of art. Items which may have a specific signature claim, those with an earlier expert qualification of authenticity, as well as those that currently have none. This requires dedicated, detailed, expert academic and archival research, which is usually necessary to conduct internationally, along with a variety of forensic applications.
Identifying and confirming the identity of a previously anonymous artist, or the studio or workshop from which a work of art probably first came. An artist which may not have been previously formerly identified or associated with it. Re-examining and investigating a previously assigned artist attribution which is possibly incorrect, or one that has been formally challenged or questioned.
Conducting the multilingual research required for the investigation and confirmation of the provenance, history, lineage and prior ownership of a work of art.
Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
Contact Ink Dating There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents: Ink Aging Approach Various methods have been published to measure aging processes that occur in ink on documents. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison.
Nov 18, · Ink dating dating ink and paper examinations how online dating habits the forensic document is known for told Fritz to bring him some stout thread from the he had gone a little farther thence, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother.
Enter Characters from Left: The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.
Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.
The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating. This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments.
Yes, forensic document examiners are handwriting experts, but forensic document examiners do not usually use the term handwriting expert to refer to themselves. The courts and attorneys commonly use the term handwriting expert; however, most forensic document examiners believe the term handwriting expert is too limiting. Forensic document examiners perform a much wider range examinations than handwriting examination, comparison, and identification.
It is true that handwriting examination is the bulk of the work performed by most forensic document examiners.
CIW Talks are minute sessions spread throughout the week that feature speakers presenting on various themes. Talks take a variety of forms and may incorporate interviews, conversations or .
Opportunity for Lawyers Forensic Evidence Forensic science developments inhibit proper case evaluation by all but forensic professionals. FERA bridges that gap by providing a contemporary forensic review facility. Dates of Documents First date of production When it can be determined that an ink came into manufacture on a certain date, it can be inferred that the writing made by that ink occurred either on or after the first date of manufacture. However, this type of analysis is relevant only to very old documents.
Analysis of the ink deposited on a document can then assist in determining a date after which the writing must have been made, that is the date will be on or after the date of manufacture of the ink containing a tag. Whether such tags occur in ballpoint pens available generally in Australia is not known. Solubility changes It is possible to determine, as an estimate, the relative age of inks of the same formula when they have been written on the same type of paper and held under the same storage conditions.
Identification and Classification
In Depth Tutorials and Information Identification and Classification Introduction Humans have been aware of and fascinated by the patterns on their fingers for thousands of years, although there is no conclusive evidence of the first time that the unique nature of these impressions was understood. Children today who finger paint exercise a similar curiosity about the strange and beautiful patterns of lines they have created.
The evolution of fingerprint classification and identification as a science has supplied not only comprehensive knowledge of what fingerprints are and how they are formed, but also their full potential as a forensic tool.
Nov 18, · Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a dating writing ic analysis rs and examination.
With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i. There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools.
What are the typical ink analysis procedures? Forensic ink testing is performed on Original Documents and may include: The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis. All of the proposed testing follows Court approved testing methods, e.
Why is ink analysis allowed if a document is in question? Under appropriate circumstances, the Court may order destructive testing of all or some portion of the physical item in question. Sequence of entry can sometimes be determined.
Forensic Laboratory – Analysis, Consulting & Investigations
New York Areas of Expertise: Document examinations are provided in Massachusetts Areas of Expertise: California Areas of Expertise: Fisher Forensic Document Laboratory, Inc.
An Independent Assessment of Ink Age Determination by a Private Examiner; Crime and Punishment Volume 3 Questioned Documents Ink Dating; How a Forensic Laboratory Can Help Your Case.
In order to address these challenges, an attempt was made to study the rate of diffusion of inks at different time intervals using hyperspectral imaging. The study was carried out to quantify the amount of ink diffusion using luminosity as a parameter at different intervals of time by preparing a Common Reference Index Value CRIV and to assess whether particular writings were made at the same period of time.
This study reveals that there are noticeable differences in the rates of diffusion of the same classes of inks, depending on time interval. This new approach can determine the relative age of the ink, in a nondestructive manner, from any two writings created at different periods of time with the same class of ink. Many attempts have been made to determine the age of ink in the last 30 years.
Different techniques have been used, based on the study of chemical and physical properties of various types of inks. Not all published methods are reliable, however, and some have been heavily criticized Hofer, This is because the concepts of absolute and relative aging are not clearly understood. No specific data bank regarding the chemical compositions and dye components for the various ink types is available. Moreover, there are many factors affecting the rate of aging, and almost all techniques used to determine age are destructive in nature.
Ball pen inks are made up of colorants dyes and pigments and a carrier vehicle.